Who wants to drink water on Mars?

MARSDAILY

NASA Confirms Evidence That Liquid Water Flows on Today’s Mars
by Staff Writers
Pasadena CA (JPL) Sep 29, 2015


Dark, narrow streaks on Martian slopes such as these at Hale Crater are inferred to be formed by seasonal flow of water on contemporary Mars. The streaks are roughly the length of a football field. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona 

New findings from NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) provide the strongest evidence yet that liquid water flows intermittently on present-day Mars.

Using an imaging spectrometer on MRO, researchers detected signatures of hydrated minerals on slopes where mysterious streaks are seen on the Red Planet. These darkish streaks appear to ebb and flow over time. They darken and appear to flow down steep slopes during warm seasons, and then fade in cooler seasons. They appear in several locations on Mars when temperatures are above minus 10 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 23 Celsius), and disappear at colder times.

“Our quest on Mars has been to ‘follow the water,’ in our search for life in the universe, and now we have convincing science that validates what we’ve long suspected,” said John Grunsfeld, astronaut and associate administrator of NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. “This is a significant development, as it appears to confirm that water – albeit briny – is flowing today on the surface of Mars.”

These downhill flows, known as recurring slope lineae (RSL), often have been described as possibly related to liquid water. The new findings of hydrated salts on the slopes point to what that relationship may be to these dark features.

The hydrated salts would lower the freezing point of a liquid brine, just as salt on roads here on Earth causes ice and snow to melt more rapidly. Scientists say it’s likely a shallow subsurface flow, with enough water wicking to the surface to explain the darkening.

“We found the hydrated salts only when the seasonal features were widest, which suggests that either the dark streaks themselves or a process that forms them is the source of the hydration. In either case, the detection of hydrated salts on these slopes means that water plays a vital role in the formation of these streaks,” said Lujendra Ojha of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) in Atlanta, lead author of a report on these findings published Sept. 28 by Nature Geoscience.

Ojha first noticed these puzzling features as a University of Arizona undergraduate student in 2010, using images from the MRO’s High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE). HiRISE observations now have documented RSL at dozens of sites on Mars. The new study pairs HiRISE observations with mineral mapping by MRO’s Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM).

The spectrometer observations show signatures of hydrated salts at multiple RSL locations, but only when the dark features were relatively wide. When the researchers looked at the same locations and RSL weren’t as extensive, they detected no hydrated salt.

Ojha and his co-authors interpret the spectral signatures as caused by hydrated minerals called perchlorates. The hydrated salts most consistent with the chemical signatures are likely a mixture of magnesium perchlorate, magnesium chlorate and sodium perchlorate.

Some perchlorates have been shown to keep liquids from freezing even when conditions are as cold as minus 94 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 70 Celsius). On Earth, naturally produced perchlorates are concentrated in deserts, and some types of perchlorates can be used as rocket propellant.

Perchlorates have previously been seen on Mars. NASA’s Phoenix lander and Curiosity rover both found them in the planet’s soil, and some scientists believe that the Viking missions in the 1970s measured signatures of these salts. However, this study of RSL detected perchlorates, now in hydrated form, in different areas than those explored by the landers. This also is the first time perchlorates have been identified from orbit.

MRO has been examining Mars since 2006 with its six science instruments.
“The ability of MRO to observe for multiple Mars years with a payload able to see the fine detail of these features has enabled findings such as these: first identifying the puzzling seasonal streaks and now making a big step towards explaining what they are,” said Rich Zurek, MRO project scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.

For Ojha, the new findings are more proof that the mysterious lines he first saw darkening Martian slopes five years ago are, indeed, present-day water.

“When most people talk about water on Mars, they’re usually talking about ancient water or frozen water,” he said. “Now we know there’s more to the story. This is the first spectral detection that unambiguously supports our liquid water-formation hypotheses for RSL.”

The discovery is the latest of many breakthroughs by NASA’s Mars missions.
“It took multiple spacecraft over several years to solve this mystery, and now we know there is liquid water on the surface of this cold, desert planet,” said Michael Meyer, lead scientist for NASA’s Mars Exploration Program at the agency’s headquarters in Washington. “It seems that the more we study Mars, the more we learn how life could be supported and where there are resources to support life in the future.”

There are eight co-authors of the Nature Geoscience paper, including Mary Beth Wilhelm at NASA’s Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California and Georgia Tech; CRISM Principal Investigator Scott Murchie of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland; and HiRISE Principal Investigator Alfred McEwen of the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory in Tucson, Arizona. Others are at Georgia Tech, the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado, and Laboratoire de Planetologie et Geodynamique in Nantes, France.

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Will my iPhone work on the planet Mars?

Communication with Mars and Earth

IMG_1769

I am taking my iPhone with me to Mars.

 

The students working on the Occupy Mars Learning Adventures are coming up with creative ways to simulate how we will communicate with each other on Mars. We are experimenting with custom software and the iPhone 6. Bob Barboza has written custom software taking advantage of artificial intelligence.

Our simulated Mars communication software has to include humanoid robots and students located in different countries from around the world. Microsoft is looking at letting on have some Skype telephone here on Earth. We will take full advance of the new iPad Professional. This is only the beginning. We welcome your comments and suggestions.

Suprschool@aol.com

www.KidsTalkRadioLA.com and http://www.KidsTalkRadioWorld.com.

Communications with Earth is relatively straightforward during the half-sol when Earth is above the Martian horizon. NASA and ESA included communications relay equipment in several of the Mars orbiters, so Mars already has communications satellites. While these will eventually wear out, additional orbiters with communication relay capability are likely to be launched before any colonization expeditions are mounted.

The one-way communication delay due to the speed of light ranges from about 3 minutes at closest approach (approximated by perihelion of Mars minus aphelion of Earth) to 22 minutes at the largest possible superior conjunction (approximated by aphelion of Mars plus aphelion of Earth). Real-time communication, such as telephone conversations or Internet Relay Chat, between Earth and Mars would be highly impractical due to the long time lags involved. NASA has found that direct communication can be blocked for about two weeks every synodic period, around the time of superior conjunction when the Sun is directly between Mars and Earth, although the actual duration of the communications blackout varies from mission to mission depending on various factors—such as the amount of link margin designed into the communications system, and the minimum data rate that is acceptable from a mission standpoint. In reality most missions at Mars have had communications blackout periods of the order of a month.

A satellite at the L4 or L5 Earth–Sun Lagrangian point could serve as a relay during this period to solve the problem; even a constellation of communications satellites would be a minor expense in the context of a full colonization program. However, the size and power of the equipment needed for these distances make the L4 and L5 locations unrealistic for relay stations, and the inherent stability of these regions, although beneficial in terms of station-keeping, also attracts dust and asteroids, which could pose a risk. Despite that concern, the STEREO probes passed through the L4 and L5 regions without damage in late 2009.

Recent work by the University of Strathclyde‘s Advanced Space Concepts Laboratory, in collaboration with the European Space Agency, has suggested an alternative relay architecture based on highly non-Keplerian orbits. These are a special kind of orbit produced when continuous low-thrust propulsion, such as that produced from an ion engine or solar sail, modifies the natural trajectory of a spacecraft. Such an orbit would enable continuous communications during solar conjunction by allowing a relay spacecraft to “hover” above Mars, out of the orbital plane of the two planets. Such a relay avoids the problems of satellites stationed at either L4 or L5 by being significantly closer to the surface of Mars while still maintaining continuous communication between the two planets.

Book: Geological Field Techniques

Geological Field Techniques

Angela L. Coe (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-4443-3062-5
336 pages
October 2010, Wiley-Blackwell
Geological Field Techniques (1444330624) cover image
For Students

Description

The understanding of Earth processes and environments over geological time is highly dependent upon both the experience that can only be gained through doing fieldwork, and the collection of reliable data and appropriate samples in the field. This textbook explains the main data gathering techniques used by geologists in the field and the reasons for these, with emphasis throughout on how to make effective field observations and record these in suitable formats. Equal weight is given to assembling field observations from igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rock types. There are also substantial chapters on producing a field notebook, collecting structural information, recording fossil data and constructing geological maps. The volume is in a robust and handy size, with colour coded chapters for ease of use and quick reference in the field.Geological Field Techniques is designed for students, amateur enthusiasts and professionals who have a background in geology and wish to collect field data on rocks and geological features. Teaching aspects of this textbook include:

  • step-by-step guides to essential practical skills such as using a compass-clinometer, making a geological map and drawing a field sketch;
  • tricks of the trade, checklists, flow charts and short worked examples;
  • over 200 illustrations of a wide range of field notes, maps and geological features;
  • appendices with the commonly used rock description and classification diagrams;
  • a supporting website hosted by Wiley Blackwell.

Table of Contents

Preface xAcknowledgements xi

1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 A selection of general books and reference material on geology 2

1.2 Books on geological fi eld techniques 3

2 FIELD EQUIPMENT AND SAFETY 4

2.1 Introduction 4

2.2 The hand lens and binoculars 5

2.3 The compass-clinometer 6

2.3.1 Orientation of a dipping plane 11

2.3.2 Orientation of a linear feature 16

2.3.3 Triangulation: Determining location using a compass 20

2.4 Global positioning systems and altimeters 25

2.5 Measuring distance and thickness 26

2.5.1 Standard thickness and distance measurements 26

2.5.2 Use of the Jacob staff to measure the thickness of inclined strata 27

2.6 Classifi cation and colour charts 28

2.7 Hammer, chisels and other hardware 31

2.8 The hardcopy fi eld notebook 33

2.9 The laptop, netbook or PDA as a notebook 34

2.10 Writing equipment, maps and relevant literature 35

2.10.1 Writing equipment 35

2.10.2 Maps and relevant literature 35

2.11 Comfort, fi eld safety and fi eld safety equipment 36

2.11.1 Clothes, backpack/rucksack and personal provisions 36

2.11.2 Field safety 36

2.11.3 Field safety equipment 39

2.12 Conservation, respect and obtaining permission 40

2.13 Further reading 41

3 INTRODUCTION TO FIELD OBSERVATIONS AT DIFFERENT SCALES 42

3.1 Introduction: What, where and how? 42

3.1.1 Defining the fi eldwork objectives 42

3.1.2 Deciding where to do the fi eldwork 43

3.1.3 Locating your position 45

3.2 Scale of observation, where to start and basic measurements 45

3.2.1 Regional context 45

3.2.2 Whole exposure 46

3.2.3 Hand specimens 49

3.3 Overview of possible data formats 51

4 THE FIELD NOTEBOOK 53

4.1 Introduction: The purpose of fi eld notes 53

4.2 Field notebook layout 54

4.2.1 Preliminary pages 54

4.2.2 Daily entries 54

4.2.3 General tips 56

4.3 Field sketches: A picture is worth a thousand words 57

4.3.1 General principles: Aims, space and tools 59

4.3.2 Sketches of exposures 63

4.3.3 Sketching metre- and centimetre-scale features 67

4.3.4 Sketch maps 68

4.4 Written notes: Recording data, ideas and interpretation 72

4.4.1 Notes recording data and observations 72

4.4.2 Notes recording interpretation, discussion and ideas 72

4.5 Correlation with other data sets and interpretations 77

5 RECORDING PALAEONTOLOGICAL INFORMATION 79

5.1 Introduction: Fossils are smart particles 79

5.1.1 Why are fossils important? 79

5.1.2 Collecting fossil data 80

5.2 Fossil types and preservation 82

5.2.1 Body fossil classifi cation 82

5.2.2 Body fossil preservation 82

5.2.3 Trace fossils 85

5.2.4 Molecular fossils 87

5.3 Fossil distribution and where to fi nd them 87

5.3.1 Transported or life position? 88

5.4 Sampling strategies 90

5.4.1 Sampling for biostratigraphic or evolutionary studies 90

5.4.2 Sampling of bedding surfaces and palaeoecology 92

5.5 Estimating abundance 95

5.5.1 Presence/absence and qualitative abundance estimates 96

5.5.2 Quantitative measures of abundance 96

5.5.3 How many samples are required? 99

5.6 Summary 100

5.7 Further reading 101

6 RECORDING FEATURES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS AND CONSTRUCTING GRAPHIC LOGS 102

6.1 Introduction 102

6.2 Description, recognition and recording of sedimentary deposits and sedimentary structures 104

6.2.1 Recording sedimentary lithology 104

6.2.2 Recording sedimentary structures 109

6.3 Graphic logs 117

6.3.1 Conventions for graphic logs 119

6.3.2 Constructing a graphic log 121

6.4 Rocks in space: Reconstructing sedimentary environments and their diagnostic features 127

6.5 Using sedimentary rocks to interpret climate change and sea-level change 133

6.5.1 Climate change 134

6.5.2 Sequence stratigraphy and relative sea-level change 134

6.6 Further reading 137

7 RECORDING FEATURES OF IGNEOUS ROCKS 139

7.1 Equipment, basic tips and safety 139

7.2 Field relationships of igneous rocks 140

7.2.1 Relationships with surrounding rocks 140

7.2.2 Internal architecture: Joints and veins 144

7.2.3 Internal architecture: Other exposure-scale fabrics 146

7.3 Mineralogy and small-scale textures of igneous rocks 154

7.3.1 Petrologic type 155

7.3.2 Mineral texture and fabric 155

7.4 Recent and active volcanoes 159

7.4.1 Equipment and safety 159

7.4.2 Access 160

7.4.3 Observations 160

7.5 Further reading 161

8 RECORDING STRUCTURAL INFORMATION 163

8.1 Equipment and measurement 164

8.1.1 Structural measurements and notations 164

8.2 Brittle structures: Faults, joints and veins 165

8.2.1 Planar brittle features – orientation 165

8.2.2 Determining past motion on brittle structures 170

8.3 Ductile structures: Shear zones, foliations and folds 176

8.3.1 Orientation of ductile planar features 176

8.3.2 Direction of shear/stretching: Stretching lineations 180

8.3.3 Sense of shear: Kinematic indicators 182

8.3.4 Magnitude of shear strain 185

8.3.5 Fold analysis 185

8.4 Further reading 191

9 RECORDING FEATURES OF METAMORPHIC ROCKS 192

9.1 Basic skills and equipment for metamorphic fi eldwork 192

9.1.1 Field relations and context 192

9.2 Textures 194

9.2.1 Banding 194

9.2.2 Grain textures 196

9.2.3 Reaction textures 197

9.3 Mineralogy 198

9.3.1 Identifying common metamorphic minerals 198

9.3.2 Using mineral assemblages 198

9.3.3 Classifi cation of metamorphic rocks 200

9.4 Unravelling metamorphism and deformation 201

9.4.1 Pre-kinematic features 202

9.4.2 Syn-kinematic features 202

9.4.3 Post-kinematic features 203

9.5 Further reading 205

10 MAKING A GEOLOGICAL MAP 206

10.1 Principles and aims 206

10.2 Preparation and materials 207

10.2.1 Base maps and other aids 207

10.2.2 Equipment for mapping 212

10.3 Location, location, location 214

10.3.1 Equipment 214

10.3.2 Using base maps 214

10.4 Making a fi eld map 216

10.4.1 Information to record on fi eld maps 216

10.4.2 The evolving map 218

10.4.3 Sketch cross-sections 221

10.5 Mapping techniques 222

10.5.1 Traverse mapping 223

10.5.2 Contact mapping 225

10.5.3 Exposure mapping 226

10.5.4 Using other evidence 228

10.6 The geological map 233

10.6.1 Inking in the fi eld map 233

10.6.2 Cross-sections 235

10.6.3 Fair copy maps 235

10.6.4 Digital maps and GIS 239

10.7 Further reading 240

11 RECORDING NUMERICAL DATA AND USE OF INSTRUMENTS IN THE FIELD 241

11.1 Data collection 241

11.1.1 Instrument calibration and base stations 244

11.1.2 Survey grids 244

11.2 Transport and protection of the instruments 245

11.3 Correlation with other data sets 245

11.4 Further reading 246

12 PHOTOGRAPHY 247

13 SAMPLING 250

13.1 Selecting and labelling samples 250

13.1.1 Samples for thin-sections 251

13.1.2 Orientated samples 251

13.1.3 Samples for geochemical analysis 253

13.1.4 Samples for mineral extraction 253

13.1.5 Samples for fossils 253

13.1.6 Sampling for regional studies 254

13.1.7 High-resolution sample sets 254

13.1.8 Labelling samples and their packaging 255

13.2 Practical advice 256

13.2.1 Packing and marking materials 256

13.2.2 Extraction of samples 257

14 CONCLUDING REMARKS 259

14.1 Further reading on scientifi c report writing 260

REFERENCES 261

APPENDIX A1: GENERAL 263

APPENDIX A5: FOSSILS 265

APPENDIX A6: SEDIMENTARY 273

APPENDIX A7: IGNEOUS 293

APPENDIX A8: STRUCTURAL 296

APPENDIX A9: METAMORPHIC 302

APPENDIX A10: MAPPING 306

Index 310

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Author Information

Dr Angela L. Coe specializes in sedimentology and stratigraphy and has over 20 years of experience of collecting geological field data in Europe, Asia, North and South America. Over this time, she has also designed and taught field geology courses for several UK universities and has led many field trips for international conferences and petroleum companies.Dr Tom W. Argles is a geologist who has conducted structural and metamorphic fieldwork in several mountain belts (Alps, Himalaya, Betic Cordillera, Caledonides, Basin and Range) for 20 years. He has set up and taught field courses in a range of locations across the UK and Europe

Dr David A. Rothery is a volcanologist and planetary scientist. He has taught geology in the field for 30 years and has research experience of igneous rocks (including active volcanoes) in the Oman, Cyprus, Italy, the Andes, central America, NW USA, Hawaii and Western Australia.

Professor Robert A. Spicer is a palaeobotanist and sedimentologist with over 30 years field experience working in remote regions of Northern Alaska and northeastern Russia, China and Tibet, India, Australia, New Zealand, and Mexico.

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Reviews

“It is highly informative, attractively designed and illustrated, reasonably priced and has its corners already rounded to survive in the rucksack. It deserves to be widely used.” (Geological Magazine, February 2011)

Related Websites / Extra

Geological Field Techniques Companion WebsiteAdditional resources for Geological Field Techniques, including: *Figures and Tables from the book for downloading *Additional observation photos *Health and Safety forms *Worked exercises and answers *Lists of useful links prepared by the authors

Recommended Reading for the International Occupy Mars Geologist’s Teams

Geo Book Closeup_1671

stitution Department
Arizona State University School of Earth and Space Exploration
Boston University Astronomy
Brown University Planetary Geosciences
California Institute of Technology Geological and Planetary Sciences
Catholic University of America Institute for Astrophysics and Computational Science
Clemson University Physics & Astronomy
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Cornell University Astronomy
Florida Institute of Technology Physics and Space Sciences
George Mason University Physics and Astronomy
Georgia Institute of Technology School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences
Hampton University Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences
Harvard University Earth and Planetary Sciences
Howard University Physics and Astronomy
Institutet för rymdfysik Swedish Institute of Space Physics
Johns Hopkins University Earth and Planetary Sciences
Kansas University Physics
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Kyung Hee University Astronomy and Space Science
Leiden University Leiden Observatory
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences
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SUNY Stony Brook Geosciences
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University of Pittsburgh Geology and Planetary Science
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University of Texas, Arlington Physics and Astronomy
University of Texas, Austin Astronomy Program
University of Texas, San Antonio/Southwest Research Institute Astronomy/Space Science
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University of Toledo Physics and Astronomy 
University of Toronto Astronomy and Astrophysics
University of Virginia Astronomy
University of Wales, Aberystwyth Institute of Mathematics and Physics
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University of Washington Astronomy
University of Western Ontario Earth Sciences, Physics & Astronomy
Vanderbilt University Physics & Astronomy
Washington University in St Louis Earth and Planetary Sciences
Wesleyan University Planetary Sciences Group
Yale University

Where can I study geology and other sciences located around the world?

stitution Department
Arizona State University School of Earth and Space Exploration
Boston University Astronomy
Brown University Planetary Geosciences
California Institute of Technology Geological and Planetary Sciences
Catholic University of America Institute for Astrophysics and Computational Science
Clemson University Physics & Astronomy
Colorado School of Mines Geophysics
Cornell University Astronomy
Florida Institute of Technology Physics and Space Sciences
George Mason University Physics and Astronomy
Georgia Institute of Technology School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences
Hampton University Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences
Harvard University Earth and Planetary Sciences
Howard University Physics and Astronomy
Institutet för rymdfysik Swedish Institute of Space Physics
Johns Hopkins University Earth and Planetary Sciences
Kansas University Physics
Keele University Astrophysics Group
Kyung Hee University Astronomy and Space Science
Leiden University Leiden Observatory
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences
New Mexico State University Astronomy
Northern Arizona University Physics and Astronomy
Northwestern University Earth and Planetary Sciences
Princeton University Astrophysical Sciences
Purdue University Earth and Atmospheric Sciences
Rice University Physics and Astronomy
SUNY Stony Brook Geosciences
SUNY Stony Brook Physics and Astronomy 
Texas Tech University Geosciences
The Australian National University Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics
Universidad de Chile Astronomia
University College London Astrophysics Group
University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute
University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory
University of Arkansas Arkansas Center for Space and Planetary Sciences
University of British Columbia Institute of Planetary Science
University of California Berkeley Astronomy
University of California Berkeley Earth and Planetary Science
University of California Los Angeles Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences
University of California Los Angeles Physics and Astronomy
University of California Los Angeles Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences
University of California Santa Cruz Earth and Planetary Sciences
University of Cambridge Institute for Astronomy
University of Cantebury Physics and Astronomy
University of Central Florida Planetary Sciences Group
University of Chicago Geophysical Sciences
University of Chicago Astronomy and Astrophysics
University of Colorado Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, Physics, Geological Sciences, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Aerospace Engineering, Chemistry
University of Florida, Gainsville Astronomy
University of Göttingen Solar System School
University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy
University of Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology
University of Idaho Physics
University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign Geology
University of Iowa Physics and Astronomy
University of Manchester Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics
University of Manitoba Physics and Astronomy
University of Maryland Astronomy
University of Massachusetts Amherst Astronomy
University of Michigan Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences
University of Minnesota School of Physics and Astronomy
University of New Hampshire Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space
University of Oxford Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics
University of Pittsburgh Geology and Planetary Science
University of St. Andrews School of Physics and Astronomy
University of Tennessee, Knoxville Earth and Planetary Sciences
University of Texas, Arlington Physics and Astronomy
University of Texas, Austin Astronomy Program
University of Texas, San Antonio/Southwest Research Institute Astronomy/Space Science
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University of Toledo Physics and Astronomy 
University of Toronto Astronomy and Astrophysics
University of Virginia Astronomy
University of Wales, Aberystwyth Institute of Mathematics and Physics
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University of Washington Astronomy
University of Western Ontario Earth Sciences, Physics & Astronomy
Vanderbilt University Physics & Astronomy
Washington University in St Louis Earth and Planetary Sciences
Wesleyan University Planetary Sciences Group
Yale University

Who wants to study Geology?

I want to learn how to be a geologist working on the Occupy Mars Learning Adventures

Geo Book Project

Geologist’s Toolkits

Our students are getting excited about studying geology, astronomy and chemistry. We are learning how to become geologists on a simulated Mars mission. One of our projects involves putting our geologist’s lab kits together. Students are getting individualized help by working with three professional geologists. Each student will have access to our new geologist’s library, STEM Lab software and the Geologist Toolkit with “The Geoscience Handbook.”

One of our goals is to provide fifty geologists tool kits to the students that are recruited into the 2015-2016 Occupy Mars Learning Adventure’s programs. We want to do what we can to get students excited about studying STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics).   Consider sponsoring a STEM Geologist Toolkit.   Contact: Suprschool@aol.com.

Did you know?

Planetary science is a dynamic and diverse discipline. Typically, research scientists earn a PhD in a field such as geology, chemistry, astronomy, physics, etc. while focusing their research in that area to planetary or solar system oriented topics.

What is the dress code at Super School K-12 International University?

We are working on designing the high school of the future.  Our job is to work like a team and develop a new curriculum that integrates Common Core State Standards, Next Generational Science Standards and STEAM++ (science, technology, engineering, visual and performing arts, mathematics, computer languages and foreign languages).   We are going to take our teachers to Antarctica, the Cabo Verde Island of Santa Luzia, Arizona Desert, Catalina and Channel Island in California and the Amazon Jungle.  Our schools STEM theme will include the Occupy Mars Learning Adventures and the Cabo Verde Tenth Island Project.  You can find more information by visiting http://www.KidsTalkRadioLA.com.

Our high school students will study with professional educators, scientists and engineers.   Our students will learn to be Jr. astronauts, engineers and scientists.  

We are going to work with XQ Super School team members to ” Rethink High Schools.”  How can you help us?    Suprschool@aol.com.

ICE AXE-  Antarctica trip DOug Stoup