Humanoid Robots and the Treatment of Autism: Project Super School

Autism Management

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Abstract:

Bob Barboza and Walter Martinez are involved in a new action research project involving Walter’s three year old nephew.  They plan on studying the effects of the “Nao” and other humanoid robots on the treatment of students with autism and other learning disabilites.

Photo: Walter Martinez with his 3 year old nephew Jacob in Los Angeles, California.

 

The main goals when treating children with autism are to lessen associated deficits and family distress, and to increase quality of life and functional independence. No single treatment is best and treatment is typically tailored to the child’s needs.[12] Families and the educational system are the main resources for treatment.[3] Studies of interventions have methodological problems that prevent definitive conclusions about efficacy.[129] Although many psychosocial interventions have some positive evidence, suggesting that some form of treatment is preferable to no treatment, the methodological quality of systematic reviews of these studies has generally been poor, their clinical results are mostly tentative, and there is little evidence for the relative effectiveness of treatment options.[130] Intensive, sustained special education programs and behavior therapy early in life can help children acquire self-care, social, and job skills,[12] and often improve functioning and decrease symptom severity and maladaptive behaviors;[131] claims that intervention by around age three years is crucial are not substantiated.[132] Available approaches include applied behavior analysis (ABA), developmental models, structured teaching, speech and language therapy, social skills therapy, and occupational therapy.[12]

 

Educational interventions can be effective to varying degrees in most children: intensive ABA treatment has demonstrated effectiveness in enhancing global functioning in preschool children[133] and is well-established for improving intellectual performance of young children.[131] Neuropsychological reports are often poorly communicated to educators, resulting in a gap between what a report recommends and what education is provided.[103] It is not known whether treatment programs for children lead to significant improvements after the children grow up,[131] and the limited research on the effectiveness of adult residential programs shows mixed results.[134] The appropriateness of including children with varying severity of autism spectrum disorders in the general education population is a subject of current debate among educators and researchers.[135]

 

Many medications are used to treat ASD symptoms that interfere with integrating a child into home or school when behavioral treatment fails.[20][136] More than half of US children diagnosed with ASD are prescribed psychoactive drugs or anticonvulsants, with the most common drug classes being antidepressants, stimulants, and antipsychotics.[137] Aside from antipsychotics,[138] there is scant reliable research about the effectiveness or safety of drug treatments for adolescents and adults with ASD.[139] A person with ASD may respond atypically to medications, the medications can have adverse effects,[12] and no known medication relieves autism’s core symptoms of social and communication impairments.[140] Experiments in mice have reversed or reduced some symptoms related to autism by replacing or modulating gene function,[54][74] suggesting the possibility of targeting therapies to specific rare mutations known to cause autism.[53][141]

 

Although many alternative therapies and interventions are available, few are supported by scientific studies.[27][142] Treatment approaches have little empirical support in quality-of-life contexts, and many programs focus on success measures that lack predictive validity and real-world relevance.[28] Scientific evidence appears to matter less to service providers than program marketing, training availability, and parent requests.[143] Some alternative treatments may place the child at risk. A 2008 study found that compared to their peers, autistic boys have significantly thinner bones if on casein-free diets;[144] in 2005, botched chelation therapy killed a five-year-old child with autism.[145]

 

Treatment is expensive; indirect costs are more so. For someone born in 2000, a US study estimated an average lifetime cost of $3.94 million (net present value in 2013 dollars, inflation-adjusted from 2003 estimate),[146] with about 10% medical care, 30% extra education and other care, and 60% lost economic productivity.[147] Publicly supported programs are often inadequate or inappropriate for a given child, and unreimbursed out-of-pocket medical or therapy expenses are associated with likelihood of family financial problems;[148] one 2008 US study found a 14% average loss of annual income in families of children with ASD,[149] and a related study found that ASD is associated with higher probability that child care problems will greatly affect parental employment.[150] US states increasingly require private health insurance to cover autism services, shifting costs from publicly funded education programs to privately funded health insurance.[151] After childhood, key treatment issues include residential care, job training and placement, sexuality, social skills, and estate planning.

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